Funding track record

Funding represents the main determinant of scientific activities, enabling researchers, among other things, to carry out research projects and related experiments, and travel to disseminate new findings. Unfortunately, it requires a huge amount of energy and there is a very low success rate (probably less than 20%). During my career I have been part of a European grant-evaluation committee and it was incredible to see the numbers as well as the high quality of the proposals submitted despite the awareness of the low success rate. Research funds are undoubtedly the lifeblood of research.

American Heart Association

Role: Principal Investigator

Title: Role of carnosine in regulation of production of RNOS by macrophages

The ultimate goal of this project was to investigate the possible protective role of carnosine on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS) and pro-inflammatory markers production by macrophages as a function of activation/differentiation states.

Budget: 98950$ (July 2016 – June 2018)



Co-Inventors: Sunil A. David, Mallesh Beesu, Giuseppe Caruso, Alex Salyer.

The patent describes the identification of new molecules with adjuvant activity for the development of new vaccines characterized by a good tolerability profile. In particular, the candidate molecules are part of the family of Toll-Like Receptors 8 agonists, capable of stimulating the innate immune response.

Application number: 15/754193

International Classes: C07D215/38; A61P37/02

United States Patent Application: 20180258045 A1

Submission date: August 19, 2016

Publication Date: September 13, 2018


Provisional Patent


Co-Inventors: Sunil A. David, Subbalakshmi S. Malladi, Karishma Khetani, Giuseppe Caruso, Lauren Fox, Alex Salyer.

The patent is based on the results obtained through the screening of more than one hundred thousand molecules which demonstrated the therapeutic potential of amphotericin B as an effective and safe adjuvant for vaccines. This antifungal drug has demonstrated a significant adjuvant activity at low doses, with a good tolerability and safety profile.

Application number: 62/287663

Submission date: January 27, 2016