Caruso G. Molecules. 2022 May 20;27(10):3303.

Pubmed: doi: 10.3390/molecules27103303


Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring endogenous dipeptide and an over-the-counter food supplement with a well-demonstrated multimodal mechanism of action that includes the detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, the down-regulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, the inhibition of aberrant protein formation, and the modulation of cells in the peripheral (macrophages) and brain (microglia) immune systems. Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, a plethora of in vivo preclinical studies have been carried out; however, there is still substantial heterogeneity regarding the route of administration, the dosage, the duration of the treatment, and the animal model selected, underlining the urgent need for “coordinated/aligned” preclinical studies laying the foundations for well-defined future clinical trials. The main aim of the present position paper is to critically and concisely consider these key points and open a discussion on the possible “alignment” for future studies, with the goal of validating the full therapeutic potential of this intriguing molecule.