Alhakamy NA, Fahmy UA, Ahmed OAA, Caruso G, Caraci F, Asfour HZ, Bakhrebah MA, Alomary MN, Abdulaal WH, Okbazghi SZ, Abdel-Naim AB, Eid BG, Aldawsari HM, Kurakula M, Mohamed AI (2020) Mar. Drugs 18:226.

Pubmed: doi: 10.3390/md18040226.


This work aimed at improving the targeting and cytotoxicity of simvastatin (SMV) against colon cancer cells. SMV was encapsulated in chitosan polymers, followed by eudragit S100 microparticles. The release of SMV double coated microparticles was dependent on time and pH. At pH 7.4 maximum release was observed for 6 h. The efficiency of the double coat to target colonic tissues was confirmed using real-time X-ray radiography of iohexol dye. Entrapment efficiency and particle size were used in the characterization of the formula. Cytotoxicity of SMV microparticles against HCT-116 colon cancer cells was significantly improved as compared to raw SMV. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytomeric technique indicated enhanced accumulation of colon cancer cells in the G2/M phase. Additionally, a significantly higher cell fraction was observed in the pre-G phase, which highlighted enhancement of the proapoptotic activity of SMV prepared in the double coat formula. Assessment of annexin V staining was used for confirmation. Cell fraction in early, late and total cell death were significantly elevated. This was accompanied by a significant elevation of cellular caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, SMV-loaded chitosan coated with eudragit S100 formula exhibited improved colon targeting and enhanced cytotoxicity and proapoptotic activity against HCT-116 colon cancer cells.