Mainz ER, Gunasekara DB, Caruso G, Jensen DT, Hulvey MK, Fracassi da Silva JA, Metto EC, Culbertson AH, Culbertson CT, Lunte SM (2012) Anal. Methods 4:414-420.

Link: doi: 10.1039/C2AY05542B


Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically important short-lived reactive species that has been shown to be involved in a large number of physiological processes. The production of NO is substantially increased in immune and other cell types through the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) caused by exposure to stimulating agents such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). NO production in cells is most frequently measured via fluorescence microscopy using diaminofluorescein-based probes. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection has been used previously to separate and quantitate the fluorescence derivatives of NO from potential interferences in single neurons. In this paper, microchip electrophoresis (ME) coupled to laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection is evaluated as a method for measurement of the NO production by Jurkat cells under control and stimulating conditions. ME is ideal for such analyses due to its fast and efficient separations, low volume requirements, and ultimate compatibility with single cell chemical cytometry systems. In these studies, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA) was employed for the detection of NO, and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6-CFDA) was employed as an internal standard. Jurkat cells were stimulated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce NO, and bulk cell analysis was accomplished using ME-LIF. Stimulated cells exhibited an approximately 2.5-fold increase in intracellular NO production compared to the native cells. A NO standard prepared using diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO) salt was used to construct a calibration curve for quantitation of NO in cell lysate. Using this calibration curve, the average intracellular NO concentrations for LPS-stimulated and native Jurkat cells were calculated to be 1.5 mM and 0.6 mM, respectively